The ship chartering process is an important part of the global trade network. Understanding the nuances of chartering is vital to make the process an efficient and cost-effective way of moving goods around the globe. In this article we will provide you with a brief overview of some elements of the process.
Chartering a ship is the process of hiring out the use of a ship by a vessel owner to another company, the charterer, for the transportation of goods.
PartiesInvolved in Chartering:
Ship owner/operator: The entity providing the ship.
Charterer: The entity who controls the cargo and is renting the vessel for transportation.
Ship broker: A middleman who provides market information and connects charterers with vessel owners/operators
Types of Charter:
Voyage Charter: This is the most common type of ship charter. A voyage charter normally involves renting the vessel as well as its crew for a particular voyage between two or more ports. The rent will be based on the quantity or weight of the cargo that is carried on the voyage or it could be a fixed amount that is agreed upon between the parties.All costs related to the voyage are paid by the owner, and payment for the use of the vessel is known as freight.
Time Charter: In this type of charter, the charterer hires the vessel for a specific period of time, usually several months to a few years. The charterer pays hire for the use of the vessel, as well as voyage related costs. The owner is responsible for the vessel's crew, maintenance and insurance.
Bareboat Charter: The charterer has full control of the vessel. Apart from the capital cost of building the vessel, which is the owner’s responsibility, all other costs including fuel, crew, port charges, maintenance and insurance, are paid by the charterer.
The ship chartering process:
Identifying Needs: The first step in the chartering process is determining the specific shipping requirements. Identify factors such as type of cargo, route, port restrictions, and schedule.
Selecting a Broker: Most companies work with shipbrokers who specialise in matching charterers with ship owners. Brokers will have extensive knowledge about available ships, their condition, and the current market level for freight.
Finding Potential Vessels: The next steps involves identifying suitable vessels based on size, quality, age, and the desired timeline. The broker will approach the ship owners with the cargo requirement and ask for the owners offer (the freight they want fortransporting the cargo or the hire they want to rent out their ship on timecharter). When one or more offers have been received the negotiations will commence.
Negotiating Terms: This involves agreeing on the charter rate, laytime (the total time allowed for loading and discharging the cargo),demurrage (the overtime payment if laytime has expired), and other specific terms outlined in the charter party agreement.
Charter Party Agreement: Once the negotiations are concluded, a charter party agreement is established. This legacy binding document outlines the terms and conditions of the charter, including the type of charter(voyage or time), the terms of payment, responsibilities and any additional terms.
The ship chartering process is an efficientway of making sure that vital goods are transported around the globe. It is a process that has evolved over manycenturies and will continue to develop as the world-trade continues to grow.